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And it seems to us like all that flowery sunshine is another example of the world getting vaginas all wrong. Just take a quick trip to your local drugstore. Like douching. Widely acknowledged by the medical community as harmful to the natural balance of vaginal flora, this common tool that cleans the vagina might actually cause bacterial vaginosis instead. The truth is, your vagina is home to billions of bacteria. And the precise makeup of this bacteria changes on a daily — sometimes hourly — basis. Change is normal. These smell variations are likely a result of your menstrual cycle, your hygiene habits, or just you being you. We called up Dr. She helped us get down to specifics with all the medical accuracy but less of the medical jargon.
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It feels like almost every week a new trend emerges which sees women putting random items in their vaginas in a quest for wellness. But, time and time again, experts have warned against this. The vagina is a very sensitive area and, except in cases of genuine medical complications, does not external ointments or products to stay healthy. However, be they a type of food or a product on sale, it seems that a sizeable number women of are tempted to try these new fads out. Or, well, in. So, in no particular order, here are some of the things that women put in their vaginas, even though they are told not to Last year we found out that women have been putting cucumbers in their vaginas. Aptly named the cucumber cleanse, the process involves the outer skin of a cucumber being removed and then the remainder of the naked cucumber being inserted into the vagina. It's then twisted around for 20 minutes. The guidelines state to do it until it's warm.
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Thank you!

A woman born without a vagina has become the first in the world to undergo reconstructive surgery to have one built out of fish skin. The fish skin was then absorbed into her body and transformed into tissue that lines the vaginal tract. After spending three weeks in hospital, Ms Marinho - the first of four patients given the procedure - was discharged and is now thrilled with the results. She said: 'My family and friends took me out to "toast" my new vagina! She added: 'It was a wonderful moment because everything worked perfectly. There was no pain just a great deal of pleasure and satisfaction. Jucilene Marinho, 23, who was born without a vagina, has become the first woman in the world to undergo reconstructive surgery to have one built out of fish skin. The fish skin lined a vagina-shaped mould that was inserted where her genitals should be. She had a normal puberty and even experienced menstrual cramps despite never having a period. Speaking of her diagnosis, Ms Marinho said: 'I cried a lot when I found out.
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Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus -dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth.

The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women.

The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences.

Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 BVAB1 that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma , Gardnerella , Prevotella and Sneathia , differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition.

Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women. Bacterial vaginosis BV is characterized by a shift in the vaginal microflora away from a low-diversity profile predominated by lactic acid-producing acidophiles to a high-diversity profile in which acidophiles are the minority Goldenberg et al.

This study reported that non-Hispanic African Americans were more than twice as likely prevalence Importantly, BV predisposes women to serious health issues including pelvic inflammatory disease Ness et al. The bases for racial differences in the rates of BV and adverse pregnancy outcome are unclear, but the disparity cannot be explained by demographic factors or lifestyle factors alone Culhane et al. Previous studies of the vaginal microbiome reveal significant differences between African American and European ancestry women. More recently, a 16S rRNA gene survey using deep next-generation sequencing performed on vaginal samples from 98 European ancestry and African American women Ravel et al.

Group IV was a heterogeneous group of strict anaerobes Ravel et al. Group I was the most common group amongst European ancestry women whereas group IV was the most common in African American women. Lactobacilli and related organisms appear to help maintain vaginal health. There are six species of Lactobacillus that commonly colonize the vagina: L.

Women are frequently colonized by multiple species Zhou et al. There is also debate about whether Atopobium vaginae , another lactic acid-producing bacterial species, may be a healthy vaginal component, at least under certain circumstances Zhou et al. The lactic acid-producing species vary in both their stability and their capacity to protect the vagina from colonization by BV-associated anaerobes Tamrakar et al. These are both key traits. Stability ensures that these species will not be easily displaced by changes in their environment that may be triggered by hormonal changes, menstruation, semen deposition, transient fluctuations in pH and non-resident bacterial species.

Protection reflects the capacity of the species to prevent other bacteria from colonizing the vagina. Conversely, L. The first goal of the present study was to compare the vaginal microbiomes of African American women with and without a diagnosis of BV with those of women of European ancestry with and without a diagnosis of BV. The second goal was to investigate the hypothesis that differences in the microbiome may contribute to increased preterm birth risk in African American women.

The third goal was to determine whether specific intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including body mass index BMI , diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and socioeconomic status, could account for the differences in the microbiomes of these two racial groups. Inclusion criteria included women age 18—44 years who were able to provide informed consent and who were willing or already scheduled to undergo a vaginal examination using a speculum.

Participants filled out a detailed questionnaire that included questions about ethnicity, education, employment, health habits, dietary habits and sexual history. Participants who self-reported African American black race and not Latino ethnicity are referred to as African American. Women who self-reported race as Caucasian white and not Latino ethnicity are referred to as women of European ancestry. Clinicians also filled out a diagnosis form at the time of each visit that included information about the purpose of each visit, and any diagnoses.

Yeast infection was diagnosed by wet mount microscopy. Samples were taken by a physician using CultureSwab EZ Becton Dickinson from the mid-vaginal wall during a speculum examination.

Sequences were classified using a local installation of the RDP classifier 0. Read counts were converted to proportions for all samples. The mean beta diversity and variance were estimated by sampling n distances from all n choose 2 pairwise distances, where n is the number of samples. Distance was measured using the Bray—Curtis method. Differences in diversity between groups of samples were tested using a two-sided t -test.

Proportion of lactobacilli, alpha diversity and ethnicity. The model and plot were generated using a random sample of AA subjects and all EA subjects for whom data were available. Diversity is shown on the x -axis and the percentage of the vaginal microbiome belonging to the genus Lactobacillus is on the y -axis. For the subjects who the model indicated are representative of EA blue triangles in the blue shaded regions , diversity appears to increase as the proportion of Lactobacillus decreases.

For the subjects who the model indicated are representative of AA red circles in the red shaded regions , as diversity increases, so does the proportion of Lactobacillus. The barplots indicating the effect size of bacterial species that correlate with ethnicity were created using LEfSe Segata et al. LEfSe uses the Kruskal—Wallis rank sum test to detect taxa that distinguish groups of subjects, and uses linear discriminant analysis LDA to calculate an LDA score for the effect size, as described by Segata et al.

Logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis of the differences between healthy subjects and those with a BV diagnosis. Multiple regression was used for the analysis of the relationship of percentage BV-associated bacteria with intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

Data beyond the end of the whiskers are outliers and are plotted as points. Analysis was conducted and plots were created using the R language for statistical computing Team, and packages ggplot2 Wickham, , kernlab Kratzoglou et al. We analysed vaginal samples from African American women and from women of European ancestry. Demographic and health history information for this cohort is given in Table 1. We analysed both the alpha diversity i. We compared the microbiome profiles of women of African ancestry with women of European ancestry who were self-reported as non-pregnant.

As previously reported Ravel et al. We also analysed the relationship between the proportion of lactobacilli and diversity. When lactobacilli were present in the vaginal microbiomes of women of European ancestry, they tended to dominate the microbial population and these microbiomes exhibited low diversity Fig.

In contrast, the microbiome profiles of African American samples exhibited higher diversity even when they contained lactobacilli. When lactobacilli were absent or present in very low numbers, microbial diversity ranged widely in both groups Fig. When grouped according to the predominating bacterial species, the samples from non-pregnant subjects analysed in this study fell into six distinct microbiome profiles: those predominated by L.

In African American women, the most common profile was L. S1, available in the online Supplementary Material. In contrast, the most common profile in women of European ancestry was L.

Microbiome profiles of women of African American or European ancestry. Stacked bar plots showing microbiome profiles from a African American women and b European ancestry women. The profiles are grouped by the dominant species into different profile types and are ordered by decreasing proportion of the dominant bacterium.

Black ticks below the x -axis denote subjects with BV. Colour codes for bacterial taxa appear in Figs S1 and S2. The findings that alpha diversity and prevalence of G. We wanted to determine whether these differences occurred in healthy women or were evident primarily in women with a diagnosis of BV.

In addition, samples from non-pregnant African American women and 18 samples from non-pregnant women of European ancestry were selected for analysis based on a positive diagnosis for BV. Among healthy subjects, women of European ancestry were more likely to be colonized with L. African American women were more likely to be colonized by Mycoplasma hominis , L. Bacterial species that correlate significantly with ethnicity. Barplot of the LDA score for bacterial species that are more prevalent in a healthy African American women and healthy European ancestry women and b those diagnosed with BV.

The healthy a cohort includes women African American, European ancestry and the BV cohort b includes women African American, 18 European ancestry. Preterm birth rates are more than twofold higher in African Americans. We hypothesized that taxa associated with preterm birth would be more prevalent in the vaginal microbiomes of pregnant African American women.

We analysed the microbiomes of pregnant African Americans and 76 pregnant women of European ancestry. Ureaplasma , Mycoplasma , Fusobacterium , Sneathia , Gardnerella , Streptococcus , Prevotella and Bacteroides have all been detected in amniotic fluid from pregnancies that resulted in preterm birth by culture or molecular techniques DiGiulio et al.

However, vaginal microbiomes of pregnant women of European ancestry actually had higher levels of Gardnerella. Prevalance of preterm birth-associated species in samples from pregnant subjects. Stacked barplot of the percentage of reads from preterm birth-associated bacterial taxa in African Americans versus women of European ancestry. The plot is based on pregnant African Americans and 76 pregnant women of European ancestry.

Of these subjects, 33 African Americans and five European ancestry women were diagnosed with BV and African Americans and 45 women of European ancestry were healthy. This analysis included healthy women and 76 women diagnosed with BV for whom complete data were available and the results are shown in Table 2. It was estimated that African Americans are 2. BV diagnosis also seemed to be associated with smoking, more sexual partners per year, less yogurt consumption and lower income, although the relationships did not achieve statistical significance.

The model is based on data from healthy subjects annual examination, no diagnosis and 76 subjects diagnosed with BV. Demographic information about the included subjects is listed in Table S1. Table 3 contains the coefficients of the linear model. All variables except for BMI and number of sexual partners were categorical with two levels.

Within the cohort studied, ethnicity was not independent of alcohol consumption, BMI, income, number of sexual partners in the past year, smoking status, yogurt consumption or douching practices. Nevertheless, ethnicity is a significant predictor of BV-associated bacteria. European ancestry women had Those who had consumed alcohol in the past week had



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