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B y the time his Libyan captors branded his face, Sunday Iabarot had already run away twice and had been sold three times. The gnarled scar that covers most of the left side of his face appears to show a crude number 3. His jailer carved it into his cheek with a fire-heated knife, cutting and cauterizing at the same time. The journey of more than 2, miles would take him across the trackless desert plains of Niger and through the lawless tribal lands of southern Libya before depositing him at the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. He never made it. Instead, he was captured the moment he arrived in Libya, then sold to armed men who kept a stable of African migrants they exploited for labor and ransom. The brand on his face, he says, was both punishment and a mark of identification. Fourteen other men who attempted to escape the fetid warehouse where they had been held as captive labor in Bani Walid, Libya, for several months in were similarly scarred, though the symbols differed. Iabarot is among an estimated , men and women who have crossed the Sahara over the past five years dreaming of a better life in Europe. Some are fleeing war and persecution.
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After millennia, formal slavery in most jurisdictions worldwide eventually came to an end by the middle of the nineteenth century. Yet, all kinds of trapped forms of labour took its place, among others sexual slavery—one of the most serious organised crimes of our time and historically one of the oldest human practices of gender inequality and exploitation. This chapter starts with broad, introductory remarks on the possible causes of sexual slavery and exploitation as well as what we as a society can do to collectively address this pressing issue. It then looks in more detail at the extent of this problem in South Africa. The chapter then moves on to consider antihuman trafficking legislation in South Africa and what it entails; a distinction is made between sexual slavery and sex work; and the reasons, effects and value of decriminalising sex work are referred to. A short account is given of the mythologised life of Sara Baartman, one of the most famous, but also least known, South African woman of her day and what we can learn from her about gender inequality, sexual slavery and exploitation. Sexual slavery and exploitation have been a worldwide problem for a very long time. This specifically applies to women and children due to factors which include a lack of employment, education and opportunities to improve their living conditions [ 1 ]. Social instability and conflict drive people to embrace desperate measures in order to survive. Despair, hunger, frustration and anxiety render some women vulnerable and gullible to the empty promises made by traffickers.
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Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more people with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in sexual activities. Sexual slavery may also involve single-owner sexual slavery ; ritual slavery , sometimes associated with certain religious practices, such as ritual servitude in Ghana , Togo and Benin ; slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes but where non-consensual sexual activity is common; or forced prostitution. Concubinage was a traditional form of sexual slavery in many cultures, in which women spent their lives in sexual servitude. In some cultures, concubines and their children had distinct rights and legitimate social positions. The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action calls for an international effort to make people aware of sexual slavery, and that sexual slavery is an abuse of human rights. The incidence of sexual slavery by country has been studied and tabulated by UNESCO , with the cooperation of various international agencies. The Rome Statute which defines the crimes over which the International Criminal Court may have jurisdiction encompasses crimes against humanity Article 7 which include "enslavement" Article 7. It also defines sexual enslavement as a war crime and a breach of the Geneva Conventions when committed during an international armed conflict Article 8. The text of the Rome Statute does not explicitly define sexual enslavement, but does define enslavement as "the exercise of any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person and includes the exercise of such power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children" Article 7. In the commentary on the Rome Statute, [6] Mark Klamberg states: [7] [8].
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Lauren Frayer. While reporting on the drama of African migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea to Europe, I've been startled by how many of them are pregnant or are traveling with a very young child.

But as I investigated, I learned there could be another, more ominous reason: Some of these pregnant women may be victims of sexual violence on the long route northward to Europe from sub-Saharan Africa — journeys that can take years. This is the tragedy no one talks about. There's scant access to contraception along the journey northward from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe. Backroom abortions are common, Marquez said. And the abuse doesn't end when they arrive in Europe. Thousands of African women are sold into sexual slavery that continues even after they arrive in Europe, she said.

But they end up in a dancing bar on the side of the highway, imprisoned in a brothel and unable to escape," Marquez said. Marquez says enslaved prostitutes are often forced give all their wages to human traffickers, to reimburse them for travel costs from Africa to Europe.

For months, I searched for a victim who'd be willing to tell me her story. But many recently arrived migrants are so frightened about being deported, they clam up when I ask them about prostitution or sexual violence.

Then one day, in a tiny office near a Madrid square known as a hangout for African prostitutes, I met Nancy, who didn't want to give her full name for fear of retribution. Nine years ago, a man and woman came to Nancy's native village in southern Nigeria and offered to take her to Europe. She trusted them, because they were acquainted with one of her cousins.

The couple met Nancy's parents, and promised to keep her safe. They even performed a traditional Nigerian ceremony — what some people refer to as voodoo — to seal the deal. Nancy was 18 years old at the time, studying to become a tailor. The couple promised to keep her safe and get her job as a fashion designer in Spain. Nancy and her family pledged to repay them for the travel costs. But barely days into their journey, in the Nigerian megacity of Lagos, the couple told Nancy the truth: She would be forced to work as a prostitute to pay off her debt — first in Lagos, and then in Europe.

You need to suffer for that money," Nancy said. You are working it off to give to another person — a woman like you, or a man. The traffickers threatened Nancy and her family. I didn't have any money. I didn't have anywhere to go!

Nancy also believed that the voodoo ceremony they performed in her home village bound her to her traffickers irrevocably, until her debt was paid. Otherwise, her family could be struck down by a curse, she believed. So she worked as prostitute for seven years in roadside brothels across Spain.

She lived upstairs in the brothels, or sometimes in apartments shared by dozens of enslaved prostitutes, to which only their traffickers had keys. They were given food and clothes only when they worked. And all their wages went straight to the traffickers. Nancy said she suffered violence at the hands of both her traffickers and her clients.

She described one incident in northern Spain when a client injured her, and a subsequent infection sent her body into shock, and she believed she was dying. No one took her to the hospital. A fellow prostitute nursed her back to health, hidden upstairs in the brothel.

She believes the incident left her infertile. Her traffickers told her she owed them money for the days she was ill and unable to work. I'm ready to die now. For years, her traffickers had told her she'd be jailed if she told the truth. But what she didn't know then is that in Spain, prostitution is not illegal — trafficking prostitutes is.

She gave police descriptions of her captors, but Nancy believes they fled the country after she went to the police, and that they are still working as traffickers of prostitutes elsewhere in Europe. The charity helped Nancy obtain residency in Spain. Today she has her own apartment and works as a first responder — often the first to be called to the police station when enslaved prostitutes decide they can't take it anymore and seek help from authorities.

Nancy has also helped APRAMP map the main routes of human trafficking from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe, based on her interviews with survivors, and sends teams to educate migrants about the dangers along those routes. For the road journey, there are a lot of countries that we have to pass — like Niger, Mali, Cote D'Ivoire, Guinea," she says.

It's just that they don't have another option. Women are forced into prostitution at every border crossing. It's difficult to know how many women have been in Nancy's shoes, because they enter the country illegally and are undocumented. Spanish authorities don't know they're here. And experts believe the real number of women — many of whom are too scared or unable to seek help — is much higher. They don't know any other way. Many of them end up pregnant by the time they reach the Mediterranean coast. It's 21st century slavery, Mora says, happening right under our noses.

Last year, Mora helped arrange for Nancy to return to Nigeria for the first time, to help educate women — potential migrants — about the dangers on the route northward toward Europe. They rely on their captors for food, clothes — for their entire life.

Those are hard shackles to break. Nancy says it's still painful to tell her story, but she does so in hopes of saving other African women from enduring what she did. She's proud to tell people what her profession is now. It's what gives me the ability to move forward," she says. Accessibility links Skip to main content Keyboard shortcuts for audio player.

Don't Tell Me! NPR Shop. But many thousands are forced into prostitution to pay for the journey. Facebook Twitter Flipboard Email. July 13, PM ET. Heard on All Things Considered.

Lauren Frayer Facebook Instagram Twitter. Enlarge this image. Katherine Streeter for NPR.

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