Scribner, —89 , vi , When a second item from a volume previously mentioned is to be listed, use an abbreviated form, as in this example referring to the volume in ii above: If a published abstract of an unpublished thesis or dissertation is known to exist, the information should be given:. Ballads of Love and Betrayal , Joglaresa, dir. Titles of other works occurring within the title should be enclosed in quotation marks see examples v and vi. Many blogs support Permalinks, URLs designed to be stable and human-readable, and this should be the form quoted where possible, even if it recapitulates much of the title: Modern Language Association of America, , pp.
McGraw Hill, , pp. Debra Linowitz Wentz, Fait et fiction: If any detail is unknown and cannot be ascertained, the following abbreviated forms of reference should be used: For films, the reference should include, as a minimum, title, director, distributor, date, e. As far as possible, follow the style used for printed publications as detailed above.
University of Georgia Press.
Tom McArthur, Worlds of Reference: Reference to an article in a book which has previously been published in a journal should take one of the following forms:. If the journal title is abbreviated to initials, full stops should not be used see example i and 4.
These are not required unpublisshed the name of the state appears in the name of the publisher e.
Any detail of publication which is not given in the book itself but can be ascertained should be enclosed in square brackets, e. It is not normally necessary to include forenames or initials of publishers, unless there are two or more with the same surname:. If it is necessary to indicate a particular reference within a page span, the unpublisned page number s should be given in parentheses see examples viiixi.
For books published by the same publisher in more than one thesie, it is normally sufficient to refer thexis to the first. Henry Moore, Reclining Woman: For ebooks, give the unpublisehd of publication which would be based on the location of the offices of the publisherthe publisher, the year, and an indication of the kind of digital file, giving page numbers or section details only if these are fixed and stable.
PMLAotherwise the title should be given in full. If any detail is unknown and cannot be ascertained, the following abbreviated forms of reference should be used: A colon should always be used to separate unpublishe and subtitle, even where the punctuation on the title page is different or as often happens non-existent. The place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the date of publication should be enclosed in parentheses; a colon separates the place from the publisher, a comma separates the publisher from the date.
Strayer and others, 13 vols New York: The Works of Thomas Nasheed.
Unpublished dissertations and theses
Rutgers University Press,pp. Society of Spanish and Spanish-American Studies,pp.
Clarendon Press,pp. Troilus and Criseydein The Riverside Chaucered. Unpubkished iv also illustrates the appropriate form of reference to a work published by its author. If an entry relates to several successive pages, the first and last page numbers of the span should always be stated: For titles in English and German, capitalize the initial letter of the first thess after the colon and all principal words in German, all nouns throughout the title including the subtitle see examples i — iii ; for titles in other languages, follow the capitalization rules for the language in question see 6.
A Collaborative Historyed. Reference to recordings of music or speech should incorporate the following items, as relevant: The following examples show a suggested method of citation for first references and possible models for later references.
Example mhrra has a DOI, so needs no access date. The first reference should be given in full in a form similar to that in the following examples:.
A Guide to Referencing Academic Work
Elbow, bronze, Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds. A book which has more than one place of publication and a different publisher in each place should be referred to as in example x. Care should be taken to identify the original rather than an echo such as a retweet.
First names of composers, artists, conductors, may be omitted if not deemed necessary. mra
If a video reference is available, it should be added at the end. BRF, MSfol.
Titles should normally be given in their most customary English-language form.